DNB Payments publications

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TIBER-NL Guide Second Test Round final November 2017

In collaboration with institutions comprising the Dutch financial core payment infrastructure, DNB has prepared a guide for further improvement of the sector's protection against cyberattacks by means of red team testing. The framework used for these tests at the institutions and DNB is known as threat intelligence-based ethical red teaming (TIBER). Its purpose is to enhance our country's financial core institutions' cyber resilience by learning from each other's best practices.

Introducing Machine Readable Security Features selection criteria February 2017
Since the level of automation in the cash cycle has grown, banknote equipment manufacturers (BEMs) have become more important during the launch of a new banknote or series. The software of all banknote handling machines (BHMs) needs to be adapted, and often for new machine readable security features (MRSFs) hardware adaptations will be required. Compared to hardware adaptation, the costs for software adaptation are low. This paper explores the criteria for the selection of MRSFs that will enable a smooth introduction on BHMs by software adaptation, with the objective of a high level of security at low implementation costs.
BRAIN - Machine Learning to Measure Banknote Fitness January 2012

A challenge for central banks is to decide whether used banknotes are still suitable for recirculation, or rather should be shredded and replaced by new ones. Obviously longer use of banknotes reduces the printing costs and environmental burden. Given the huge amounts of banknotes in circulation, determining the fitness of banknotes is not only of importance in cost control, but also poses a serious technical challenge in terms of processing speed and accuracy. With the current technology fit notes are often shredded along with unfit ones. In this paper DNB proposes a fitness detection method that may contribute to a reduction of the amount of unnecessary shreds.

From Fit to Unfit: How Banknotes become Soiled July 2011
P. Balke
A banknote is a product with a long tradition. It is well known and commonly used. Yet banknotes still have an unreveiled secrecy, not meaning their security features, but their life! Especially the link between their environment and deterioration remains somewhat a mystery. Four typical deterioration stages of a banknote in circulation in the Netherlands are described in this paper. The study elaborates on earlier work conducted by DNB in the field of banknote soiling.
Payment of cross-border online shopping: behaviour, perceptions and desires January 2011
Anneke Kosse
In January 2011, De Nederlandsche Bank conducted an online survey among Dutch consumers to get an insight into their behaviour, perceptions and desires with respect to payments of cross-border online purchases (i.e. online shopping at foreign web stores). The main conclusion is that the current range of payment instruments for cross-border online shopping does not satify consumers' needs and that there is a need for a secure and low-cost cross-border payment solution that is based on online banking. The survey conclusions underline the importance of the EPC e-Payment Framework that aims at achieving full reachability for all consumers in SEPA. This Factsheet presents the most important findings of the survey.
Cross-border payment behaviour of Dutch consumers in 2009 December 2010
Nicole Jonker and Anneke Kosse

The payment system in the Netherlands is undergoing major reconstruction. We are moving towards a single European payments market: the Single Euro Payments Area, or SEPA for short. Since 2007, DNB has carried out annual surveys among Dutch consumers to cast light on their payment behaviour, perceptions and wishes regarding paying to and in other euro countries, both now and over time. This survey report describes the most important findings and conclusions of the 4th survey conducted early in 2010. The results show that the first consequences of SEPA are slowly becoming visible, but that a true single internal European payments market is still not a reality. The survey also shows that the awareness and impression of SEPA is still incomplete and sometimes even incorrect. This underlines the importance of already starting giving careful thought to the way in which SEPA can best be communicated to the public.

The Colour of Soil November 2010

In this paper the colour of soil on banknotes is revealed. It is demonstrated that soiling changes the spectral reflectance of the banknote surface mainly in the blue part of the spectrum, i.e. soil on banknotes has a distinct yellowish/brownish tint. For euro banknotes the best option to detect soil is a reflection measurement in the blue part of the visual spectrum, more precise around 450 nm. This can be achieved using either using a blue illumination for the soil sensor or using a form of white light and using a blue filter in front of the light capturing device.

nr 021 - New Soiling Test Method: Anti-Dirty Fingers January 2010
P. Balke

The deterioration of banknotes is mainly studied in practice, i.e. in circulation trials. This is a direct consequence of the lack of knowledge about the physical and chemical processes that cause deterioration in circulation. Because circulation trials have some major drawbacks DNB initiated research on these basic issues. By using an artificial sebum in combination with an ageing treatment a so-called 'Super Unfit' banknote was reproduced under laboratory conditions. It is likely that the sebum on circulated banknotes is due to interaction with the human finger. While the banknote is transferred the banknote is touched and fingerprint deposits are left behind on the banknote. During the lifetime of the banknote this procedure is frequently repeated, i.e. fingerprint deposits will accumulate and eventually will form a layer of aged sebum (soil).

nr 018 - Banknote opinion polls: a method for collecting customer feedback on banknote design March 2008
Hans, A.M. de Heij

In 2002 DNB introduced the motto 'DNB Knowledge Bank'. Payment systems, one of them being cash, are pointed out by DNB's board as one of the three main knowledge areas of DNB, together with super vision and monetary policy. To support this policy further, the first DNB Cash Seminar was held in Amsterdam on 28 - 29 February 2008. This paper is one of the subjects presented by DNB, contributing to the Seminar's theme 'Consumer research on banknote design'. The paper presents the findings of the 13 opinion polls held by DNB since 1983. These findings are split in two parts: a) unique time series like the public's knowledge of security features and b) recommendations to come to better banknote design. Also other ways to come to public input for banknote design are mentioned.

nr 017 - Programme of Requirements - a powerful tool to develop new, secure banknotes January 2008
Hans, A.M. de Heij

New banknote designs are often disappointing because:
- The new note is not on time, as a result of endless design loops and time consuming decision making.
- The new note exceeds the development budget because of not foreseen additional research.
- The new note is not attractive and does not communicate.
- And the worst: a mistake is made, e.g. in the text or in one of the images. Or something is forgotten.

Although may be bureaucratic at first glance, working with a clear Programme of Requirements (POR) could diminish the above shortcomings. The graphic designer might qualify the listed requirements ‘as thick as a telephone book’. But in practice working with a POR for new banknotes will save a lot of paper work and will turn out to be efficient and user friendly. Further more it will lead to new design concepts. 

Recently Quality Management is another driver to introduce a Programme of Requirements, especially when central banks want to operate according ISO 9001. A complete POR is a key part in such a procedure.

nr 011 - Numbers on Banknotes. What is their use. September 2006
Hans de Heij en Alwin van Gelder

Serial numbers have been included on Dutch banknotes since they were first issued in 1814. The number, which is unique for each banknote, allows the note to be traced and identified. Early banknotes were numbered by a central bank clerk, in clearly legitable handwriting. Handwriting became obsolete around 1860 and letterpress numbering was introduced, using specially designed typographic fonts. In 1968 DNB was the first to introduce machine readable numbers on banknotes (OCR-B). It was also the first organisation to establish a database of all banknotes in circulation, requiring banknotes to be registrated by means of an automated reading process. In 1989 DNB was the first central bank to introduce barcodes on banknotes. The banknote identifier of tomorrow might be a chip rather than a printed serial number. This however depends on the stakeholders of a banknote identifier and the way they want to use it. (published with permission of Keesing Journal of Documents & Identity)

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