DNB Payments publications

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Overzicht van DNB Betalingsverkeer
Title or themeDate
nr 010 - Banknote dimensions and orientation: user requirements September 2006
Hans de Heij

Looking at the dimensions of banknotes, a uniform banknote height is the major trend worldwide. For one, it facilitates public use of all kinds of banknote acceptors. Second, the notes fit better inside wallets. A uniform note height would also help the blind in that it allows for a distinct length increment between the most used notes, e.g. 8 mm.


nr 009 - Payments are no free lunch March 2006
Hans Brits and Carlo Winder
Total costs of the payments system to society are considerable. These costs can be higher or lower depending on the use of payment instruments that are less or more cost efficient. Empirical evidence is provided by a survey on the costs of pos payment instruments in the Netherlands. The overall costs involved in pos payments amount to 0.65% of gdp or, equivalently, eur 0.35 per transaction. The e-purse is most costefficient, irrespective of the size of a transaction, while if the choice is between cash and the debit card, the former is most economical for purchases below eur 11.63 and the debit card is to be preferred for larger purchases. From a cost perspective, credit cards should not be used at all. The distorting effect caused by the use of public resources to finance the expenses made by central bank to maintain the cash circulation is found to be limited. It is argued that a less-cash society has better chances of success than a cashless one, at least in the medium term.
nr 008 - Payment instruments as perceived by consumers – a public survey March 2006
Nicole Jonker
Survey results show that Dutch consumers perceive paying in cash as an inexpensive way to pay, while they regard electronic payment cards as relatively expensive. This finding partly explains the low usage of electronic payment cards in point-of-sale (POS) payments. The survey also highlights several non-price features that contribute to the unpopularity of electronic payment cards. The objective of the survey was to identify price and non-price features of payment instruments that can be used to stimulate the use of electronic payment cards. Their attractiveness can be increased, through 1) technological modifications to e-purses and debit cards that enhance their convenience, 2) by increasing the number of acceptance points and 3) by drawing public attention to the speed of e-purse payments. Making it more expensive for consumers to pay in cash could also increase the usage of electronic payment instruments.
nr 006 - Life cycle analyses of security features in banknotes February 2005
Hans, A.M. de Heij
In 2004 the Dutch press reported frequently about the euro counterfeit situation in the Netherlands. One of the criticised tools to check a banknote is the ‘UV-lamp’. It was written that the UV check had become useless. The UV lamp was qualified as old fashioned. Commercial purveyors advised their customers not to use UV lamp s any longer. Infrared tools were recommended as being more reliable and future oriented.
nr 005 - Attractive banknotes. A matter of design management December 2004
Hans, A.M. de Heij
nr 004 - Efficient cash payments with euro coins and banknotes in the Netherlands September 2004
Hans, A.M. de Heij and Jeanine Kippers
DNB has made several investigations into the use of cash by the Dutch public. Conclusions on the use of cash can only be drawn based on observations of real cash transactions at the spot and not on the basis of surveys like internet surveys or the use of macro figures.
nr 003 - Comparence EUR - USD banknotes February 2003
Hans, A.M. de Heij
In February of 2002 the US Treasury Department, the European Central Bank and the Dutch Central Bank conducted studies on public awareness of banknotes. Each of the three studies had a different purpose/goal. The United States evaluated public knowledge of the dollar in the US, the European Central Bank studied the effects of the Euro-note public education campaign and the Dutch Central Bank compared the public perception of the new Euro-notes with previous research performed on the NLG-notes. The set up of the US-study did take note of the Dutch-studies, for example the sampling period was chosen also in February 2002 and the questions on appreciation were made comparable. However, while the studies were implemented independently there are only some elements that are common and can be compared and contrasted. This paper examines the results of the three different studies and serves as a baseline analysis of multi-national public awareness of bank notes.
Consumption of banknotes in the Netherlands April 2002
Tom Buitelaar
DNB has shown interest in an efficient use of banknotes since 1957. In that year we started issuing all banknotes with a special varnish in order to protect the notes against soiling. During this period efforts were made to improve the quality of the coating with the help of circulation trials. The last circulation trial, held in 1998, showed that coated notes lasted twice as long as uncoated ones. This articles describes DNBs history in varnishing notes and the effect on the consumption of notes. Another option to extend the life span of banknotes is to improve the quality of the sorting process. The problem of the dissatisfying sorting quality of is caused by the variation in the banknotes introduced during the production of the banknotes. Especially the intaglio step of the production process generates the majority of the variation. As long as the variation is not stabilized a good sorting quality is impossible. An improvement of the unsatisfactorily sorting quality can be achieved by using multiple physical properties such as age or transmission and possibly others.
nr 002 - A method for measuring the publics appreciation and knowledge of banknotes January 2002
Hans, A.M. de Heij
This article deals with the survey and the results regarding the NLG-notes (see Appendix II for the questionnaire used) and is, moreover, intended as an invitation to use the survey method described.
nr 001 - The design methodology of Dutch banknotes January 2000
Hans, A.M. de Heij
Since the introduction of a design methodology for Dutch banknotes, the quality of Dutch paper currency has improved in more than one way. The methodology in question provides for a design policy, which helps fix clear objectives, design management, to ensure a smooth co-operation between the graphic designer, printer, papermaker and central bank, a Programme of Requirements (POR), a banknote development guideline for all parties involved. This systematic approach enables an objective selection of design proposals, including security features. Furthermore, the project manager obtains regular feedback from the public by conducting market surveys. Each new design of a Netherlands Guilder (NLG) banknote issued by the Nederlandsche Bank over the past 50 years has been an improvement on its predecessor in terms of value recognition, security and durability.
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