Striking new coins
The Ministry of Finance determines once a year how many euro coins are needed. For 2017, this is 60 million 5 cent coins, and 20 million 10 cent coins. The Royal Dutch Mint strikes the euro coins in the Netherlands.
The production process: from design to coin
Producing a new coin starts with the design. The design incorporates many aspects, from appearance to technical feasibility. For example, a designer will always check a design's appearance in metal, because a design that looks great on paper may look very different on a shiny metal surface. Technical feasibility is another important aspect. On paper, a design is two-dimensional, but once a coin has been struck, it will have relieved surfaces, which are subject to a maximum height.
Once the design is ready, a sculptor carves the design into a plaster mould. After the mould has been approved, its design is reduced to a steel blank to create the master die. The master die is then used to create the working dies. Production is now ready to start (information in Dutch).
The euro coins are made of various materials. The 10 cent, 20 cent and 50 cent coins are made of Nordic gold. The €1 and €2 euro coins are made of nickel and copper. The 1 cent, 2 cent and 5 cent coins are made of copper-covered steel. The lightest is the 1 cent coin, which weighs 2.3 grammes. They €2 coin is the heaviest, weighing 8.5 grammes.
The exact specifications can be found on knm.nl (in Dutch only).
You can read more about the design and the production process on these pages (in Dutch only).