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12 September 2018 Supervision Supervision label Supervision Q&A


Can repayment of the unlawfully obtained gain be demanded?


Yes, when the exact amount of the gain obtained can be identified or when a realistic estimation of the gain obtained can be made. In that case, the fine or penalty may be set at twice the amount of the gain that the non-compliant party obtained on account of its non-compliance.


  • Banks
  • Clearing institutions
  • Collective investment schemes
  • Insurers
  • Investment firms
  • Payment institutions
  • Pension funds
  • Trust offices