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08 juni 2022 Onderzoek Toezichtlabel Occasional Studies
Volume 20 - 1

Cyber risk is an increasingly important source of risk, not just to individual financial institutions, but also to the financial system as whole. The number of cyber incidents has increased over the past years, and the incidents have become more costly. Several features of the financial system make it especially exposed to cyber risk. Even though many financial institutions have increased their cyber resilience, cyber incidents will keep occurring and have the potential to cause major damage to the financial sector. Therefore, it is important to also develop a macroprudential perspective on cyber risk.

A Macroprudential Perspective on Cyber Risk



  • Helga Koo
  • Remco van der Molen
  • Robert Vermeulen
  • Ralph Verhoeks
  • Alessandro Pollastri